Thermal annealing#

Domain size in square ASI#

In section V. B. of our paper , we briefly describe the use of flatspin to perform an annealing procedure to match an experimental setup. The following is the setup for flatspin’s parameters and a guide to how the experiment was performed. This example demonstrates a large part of flatspin’s features, and most notably a novel use of its temperature implementation.

The main goal of this experiment is to reproduce the annealing of square artificial spin ice, as in

There are six main parts to this experiment:

1. Define the systems temperature dependent parameters

2. Define the probablities of flipping once (and more) for a given simulation step

3. Use the probabilities and temperature dependent parameters to identify the nucleation volume

4. Derive an annealing profile and generate the parameters.

5. Produce the flatspin run command and input files

6. Results

1. Temperature dependent parameters#

At high temperatures, the physical magnetic materials constituting the nanomagnet dipoles change their physical properties. While these material properties are not directly modeled by flatspin, we can change relevant parameters of the simulation to fit the temperature induced change.

Saturation magnetization, $$M_\text{S}(T)$$
One of the most important changes to a magnetic material as you heat it is the reduction of saturation magnetization. We use values obtained for a 25 nm permalloy film to find an expression for $$M_\text{S}(T)$$. The experimental values are gathered from .

import json
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
from scipy import optimize
from functools import partial

# Some constant we will use later
mu0 = 1.256637e-6 # kg m s^-2 A^-2
kB = 1.38064852e-23 # m^2 kg s^-2 K^-1

# Open the data from Zhang2019
with open('Zhang-Py-25nm-msat-vs-T.json') as f:
dataset_zfc = [dataset['data'] for dataset in msat_data['datasetColl'] if dataset['name']=='ZFC'][0]
data = [p['value'] for p in dataset_zfc]
x, y = list(zip(*data))
y = [val*1e3 for val in y] # Convert to units of A/m
# Plot it
plt.figure(dpi=100)
plt.scatter(x, y, c = 'r',  s = 3, label='Extracted data')

# Fit the following function to the msat curve
def f1(x, a, b, c):
return -a*np.log(-b/(x-c))
a1, b1, c1 = 150000, 10, 820 # Some rough fitting parameters as initial guess
(a0, b0, c0), _ = optimize.curve_fit(f1,  x,  y,  p0=(a1, b1, c1))
x_ax = np.linspace(min(x), max(x))
plt.plot(x_ax, f1(x_ax, a0, b0, c0), label = '$M_S(T)$ Curve fit')

plt.xlabel('Temperatue [K]')
plt.ylabel('Saturation magnetization [A/m]')

# Create the msat(T) function, units A/m (not kA/m, as in Zhang et al.)
msat_vs_T = partial(f1, a=a0, b=b0, c=c0)
plt.legend();


Coupling strength, $$\alpha$$
While $$M_\text{S}(T)$$ is not a direct part of flatspin, it influences other parameters relevant for flatspin simulations. One of these are the coupling parameter, $$\alpha$$, which we can define given an $$M_\text{S}(T)$$, a volume and a lattice spacing.

Switching threshold, $$h_c$$
As the saturation magnetization varies, so does the switching threshold, $$h_c$$. We create a function to estimate the switching threshold from the temperature, using our msat_vs_T function.
The coefficients of the scaling is taken from micromagnetic simulations.

# Calculate alpha (in Tesla)
def alpha_calc(msat, V, a):
return mu0 * msat * V / (4 * np.pi * a**3)

# Calculate switching threshold
def hc_vs_T(T, msat=None):
coeff = np.array([2.36501465e-07, -8.52767576e-03])
if msat is None:
msat = msat_vs_T(T)
return np.polyval(coeff, msat)


Below is a plot of the calculated $$\alpha$$ values and $$h_c$$ values for magnets of size $$220\times80\times25$$ nm and a separation of $$320$$ nm.

Hide code cell source
T_range = np.linspace(300,820,500)
volume =  220e-9 * 80e-9 * 25e-9
separation = 320e-9

# Plot alpha
plt.figure(dpi=100)
plt.plot(T_range, alpha_calc(msat_vs_T(T_range), volume, separation), c='C0', ls='-', linewidth=2, label='alpha')
plt.ylabel('Coupling coefficient, alpha, [T]')
plt.xlabel('Temperature [K]')
plt.legend(loc='upper right', bbox_to_anchor=(1, 1.0))

# Plot hc
ax2 = plt.gca().twinx()
ax2.plot(T_range, hc_vs_T(T_range), c='C1', ls=':', lw=4, label='hc')
plt.ylabel('Switching threshold, hc [T]')
plt.legend(loc='upper right', bbox_to_anchor=(1, 0.9));


2. Flipping probabilities#

We now use the temperature dependent parameters to define functions returning the probability of switching in a given scenario. The probability is evaluated for an unbiased magnet, i.e., we consider the shortest distance to the astroid edge from the origin. To calculate this, we use an example model instance with the same parameters as in the simulation we will be doing, and use its _zero_to_astroid attribute. We use the Poisson formula to calculate the probability.

The _zero_to_astroid attribute returns the smallest field required to flip a magnet, in units of $$h_c$$, which we can use to multiply by hc_vs_T(T) to get the smallest field required to flip an unbiased magnet. Thus, only the astroid parameters, sw_b, sw_c, sw_beta, and sw_gamma, are relevant for the example model instance.

We define the probability of flipping at least once, P_flip, and the probability of flipping more than once, P_multiflip.

from flatspin.model import SquareSpinIceClosed

# Example model instance
model = SquareSpinIceClosed(sw_b=0.38, sw_c=1.0, sw_beta=1.3, sw_gamma=3.6)

def P_flip(T, delta_t, volume_nuc):
threshold_zero = model._zero_to_astroid * hc_vs_T(T)
attempt_freq = model.attempt_freq
m_therm = msat_vs_T(T) * volume_nuc

# Poisson rate
f = attempt_freq * np.exp(-m_therm * threshold_zero / (kB * T))
P_flip_zero = np.exp(-f * delta_t)

return 1 - P_flip_zero

def P_multiflip(T, delta_t, volume_nuc):
threshold_zero = model._zero_to_astroid * hc_vs_T(T)
attempt_freq = model.attempt_freq
m_therm = msat_vs_T(T) * volume_nuc

# Poisson rate
f = attempt_freq * np.exp(-m_therm * threshold_zero / (kB * T))
P_flip_zero = np.exp(-f * delta_t)
P_flip_once = f * delta_t * np.exp(-f * delta_t)
P_multiflip = 1 - P_flip_zero - P_flip_once

return P_multiflip


The challenge of choosing delta_t#

Below is a visualization of the probability of flipping once, P_flip, and more than once, P_multiflip, as a function of temperature and simulation time interval. The example is for a magnet of size $$220\times80\times25$$ nm, assuming a 5% nucleation volume.

At high temperatures (~800 K), the maximum simulation time interval that would keep P_multiflip below an acceptable value is about 10e-8 seconds. We see that continuous simulation from high temperatures to room temperature is difficult to do without changing the simulation time interval. A naive approach could be to stay at a low delta_t throughout all temperatures, but this would hardly simulate any physical time at all (each step accounting for 10e-8 seconds). Instead we can increase the time intervals as we decrease temperature, as long as we stay below an accepted value of P_multiflip. We call this process the “annealing profile” and in 4. Annealing profile we will have a closer look at how we go about choosing the right one for this experiment.

Hide code cell source
# === First plot: heatmap of P_flip(T, delta_t) ===
plt.figure(dpi=100)
plt.subplot(121)
# Range over which to plot P_flip and P_multiflip
delta_t_range = np.geomspace(1e-10,1e10,500)
T_range = np.linspace(500,820,500)
volume =  220e-9 * 80e-9 * 25e-9

# Calculate the probability heatmap of T and delta_t
Tv, dtv = np.meshgrid(T_range, delta_t_range)
T_v_dt_flip = P_flip(Tv, dtv, volume_nuc=volume*0.05)
T_v_dt_multiflip = P_multiflip(Tv, dtv, volume_nuc=volume*0.05)

# Show the probablity heatmap
plt.ylabel(r'$\log(\Delta t~[s])$')
plt.xlabel(r'$T [K]$')
plt.title('P_flip')

# === Second plot: heatmap of P_flip(T, delta_t) ===
plt.subplot(122)

# Range over which to plot P_flip and P_multiflip
delta_t_range = np.geomspace(1e-10,1e10,500)
T_range = np.linspace(500,820,500)

# Calculate the probability heatmap of T and delta_t
Tv, dtv = np.meshgrid(T_range, delta_t_range)
T_v_dt_multiflip = P_multiflip(Tv, dtv, volume_nuc=volume*0.05)

# Show the probablity heatmap
plt.xlabel(r'$T [K]$')
plt.title('P_multiflip')
plt.colorbar();


3. Nucleation moment, $$M_{th}$$#

Now that we have the probabilities of flipping we can tune the final parameter, the nucleation moment, to fit with an expected (lack of) activity as described in . We expect the magnets to not flip at all below $$T=673$$ K, and we use this to define the nucleation volume (and thus the nucleation moment, $$M_{th}$$, to be used by flatspin). Thus we set P_desired_flip = 0.00001 at timestep length dt_freeze = 60 and temperature T_freeze = 673.

T_freeze = 673 # kelvin
dt_freeze = 60 # If nothing happens in 60 seconds, we say the magnets are frozen
P_desired_flip = 0.00001 # At freeze out, we want flips to be unlikely

# ==== Find nucleation volume ====
# First, create a f(nuc_volume) that we can evaluate against P_desired_flip
volume = 220e-9*80e-9*25e-9 # The actual volume of the magnets

def P_flip_from_V_nuc(V_nuc):
return P_flip(T_freeze, dt_freeze, volume_nuc=V_nuc)

# Plot P(nuc_volume) over the relevant nuc_volume range
plt.figure(dpi=100)
# We assume here that the interesting part will be for volumes less than half the total volume
nuc_fractions = np.linspace(0.01,0.5,1000)
plt.plot(nuc_fractions, P_flip_from_V_nuc(nuc_fractions*volume), label='P_flip = f(nuc_volume)')
plt.xlabel('Nucleation volume fraction')
plt.ylabel('P_flip')

# Plot the target, P_desired_flip
plt.plot(nuc_fractions, [P_desired_flip]*len(nuc_fractions), label='P_flip, target')

# ==== Do bisection of P_flip_from_V_nuc to find the desired value ====
# First create the function to search for roots
def P_flip_min_desired(nuc_fraction):
return (P_flip_from_V_nuc(nuc_fraction*volume)-P_desired_flip)
plt.plot(nuc_fractions, P_flip_min_desired(nuc_fractions), label='Root searching function')

# Search for roots
nuc_vol_fraction = optimize.bisect(P_flip_min_desired, 0, 1, disp=True)
volume_nuc = nuc_vol_fraction*volume

# Print results
print(f'Found nuc volume:\n {volume_nuc} out of {volume},\nnuc_fraction = {nuc_vol_fraction}')
plt.scatter(nuc_vol_fraction, P_flip_from_V_nuc(volume_nuc), c='r', label='Identified nucleation volume')
plt.legend()
plt.ylim((-2*P_desired_flip,P_desired_flip*50))
plt.title('T = 673 K, delta_t = 60 s');

Found nuc volume:
2.250034261516703e-23 out of 4.4e-22,
nuc_fraction = 0.05113714230719779


4. Annealing profile#

We are now ready to look at the effects of changing the timestep length and temperature, and use this to find a suitable annealing protocol.

Ideally, we would do just like in the experiment , decreasing by 1 minute per kelvin, starting at T_max = 800 kelvin, simulated as a single step per temperature value.T If P_multiflip rises above the accepted multiflip_threshold, we must reduce the timestep length and do more, shorter steps at these temperatures.

We will see that this approach is a bit too naive.

# === The "ideal" annealing profile ===
multiflip_threshold = 0.001
dt_cap = 60

# === Plot: heatmap of P_flip(T, delta_t) ===
plt.figure(dpi=100)

# Range over which to plot P_flip and P_multiflip
delta_t_range = np.geomspace(1e-10,1e10,500)
T_range = np.linspace(500,820,500)

# Calculate the probability heatmap of T and delta_t
Tv, dtv = np.meshgrid(T_range, delta_t_range)
T_v_dt_multiflip = P_multiflip(Tv, dtv, volume_nuc=volume_nuc)

# Show the probablity heatmap
plt.ylabel(r'$\log(\Delta t)$')
plt.xlabel(r'$T [K]$')
plt.title('P_multiflip')
plt.colorbar()

# Plot "freeze out cursor", i.e., where we expect the magnets to be stable
plt.axvline(T_freeze, c='c', label=f'T = {T_freeze} K (blocking temp)')
plt.axhline(np.log10(dt_cap), c='C1', label=f'delta_t = {dt_cap} s')

# Find T and delta_t where P_multiflip == multiflip_threshold
# For now, we create a delta_t(T) function numerically,
# in the next section we will derive it properly.
inds = np.argmax(T_v_dt_multiflip >= multiflip_threshold, axis=1)
T_thresh = T_range[inds]
plt.plot(T_range[inds], np.log10(delta_t_range), color='r', label=f'P_multiflip = {multiflip_threshold}')

# Plot the "ideal" temperature profile
mask = (T_thresh >= T_freeze) & (T_thresh <= 800)
dt_ideal[dt_ideal > np.log10(dt_freeze)] = np.log10(dt_freeze)
plt.plot(T_ideal, dt_ideal, c='C2', label = '"Ideal" temperature profile')
plt.scatter(*[(min(T_ideal), max(T_ideal)),(max(dt_ideal), min(dt_ideal))], c='C2')

plt.legend(loc='upper left', bbox_to_anchor=(1.2, 1.0));


Implementing the above temperature profile, with the goal of simulating one minute at each degree kelvin would require about 10^10 steps, just for the $$T = 800$$ K step. To make our simulation feasible, we abandon the hope of simulating a full minute at all temperatures, and settle on a fixed number of simulation step per temperature. For the lower temperatures, we end up simulating at the desired 1 minute per kelvin, but at higher temperatures this compromise simulates less actual time. However, with enough simulation steps and high switching frequencies we assume that we do not miss important dynamics.

To create this compromise temperature profile, it will be useful to calculate the maximum timestep length we can do without violating a certain P_flip or P_multiflip requirement.
Below we create a function to yield the maximum timestep length and calculate a temperature profile.

from scipy.special import lambertw
from numpy import real

# === First we create a way to calculate the maximum delta_t ===
def calc_delta_t(T, m_therm, delta_h, P_flip=None, P_multiflip=None, f0=1e9):
""" Calculate maximum delta_t for target P_flip or P_multiflip.
Returns the delta_t that would result in a probability that is
smaller than (or equal to) the one supplied.
"""
f = f0 * np.exp(-m_therm * delta_h / (kB * T))
if P_flip is not None:
assert P_multiflip is None
# Using the equation for of flipping at least once,
# 1 - np.exp(-f * delta_t),
# and solving for delta_t is straight forward
return np.log(1 - P_flip)/-f

elif P_multiflip is not None:
assert P_flip is None
# Using the expression for the likelihood of multiple switching events,
# 1 - np.exp(-f * delta_t) - f * delta_t * np.exp(-f * delta_t),
# to solve for delta_t is not trivial.
# We do so here by using the Lambert W function from scipy.
return real((1/f)*(-lambertw((P_multiflip - 1)/np.exp(1), -1) - 1))

raise ValueError("Need either P_flip or P_multiflip")

def max_delta_t(T, P_flip=None, P_multiflip=None):
delta_h = model._zero_to_astroid * hc_vs_T(T)
f0 = model.attempt_freq
msat = msat_vs_T(T)
m_therm = msat * volume_nuc
return calc_delta_t(T, m_therm, delta_h, P_flip, P_multiflip, f0)

# === Return the temperatures, delta_ts, number of timesteps,
# and temperature where 1 min/K is reached (T_breakoff)
def make_fixed_temperature_profile(T_max, T_min, timesteps_per_K, multiflip_threshold, max_tpk=60):
Ts = np.arange(T_max, T_min-.1, -1)
max_dt = max_tpk / timesteps_per_K
dts = max_delta_t(Ts, P_multiflip=multiflip_threshold)
T_breakoff = Ts[np.argmax(dts > max_dt)]
dts[dts>max_dt] = max_dt
ns = np.repeat(timesteps_per_K, len(Ts))

return Ts, dts, ns, T_breakoff

T_max = 800
timesteps_per_K = 50
Ts, dts, ns, T_breakoff = make_fixed_temperature_profile(T_max, T_freeze, timesteps_per_K, multiflip_threshold)
time_per_kelvin = ns * dts

print(f"Temperature range to be simulated  at less than {np.max(time_per_kelvin)} seconds: {T_max} - {T_breakoff}")
print(f"Time per kelvin range: {np.min(time_per_kelvin)} - {np.max(time_per_kelvin)}")
print(f"Total timesteps: {sum(ns)}")
# print("Ts =", Ts)
# print("ns =", ns)
# print("dts =", dts)
# print("ns * dts=", time_per_kelvin)

Temperature range to be simulated  at less than 60.0 seconds: 800 - 721.0
Time per kelvin range: 5.925372795996785e-08 - 60.0
Total timesteps: 6400

# === Plot everything ===
# Plot the temperature profile in the P_flip heatmap
plt.figure(dpi=100)
plt.subplot(1,1,1)
T_v_dt = P_flip(Tv, dtv, volume_nuc=volume_nuc)

# T_freeze line
plt.axvline(T_freeze, label='T_freeze', color='c')

#for T_max in np.arange(740, 821, 10):
Ts, dts, ns, T_breakoff = make_fixed_temperature_profile(T_max, T_freeze, timesteps_per_K, multiflip_threshold)
tpk = ns * dts
plt.plot(Ts, np.log10(dts), c='C2', label='Timestep length')
plt.scatter([Ts[0], Ts[-1]], [np.log10(dts[0]), np.log10(dts[-1])], c='C2')

plt.ylabel(r'$\log10(\Delta t)$')
plt.xlabel(r'$T$ [K]')
plt.title('P_flip')
plt.colorbar()
plt.plot(Ts, np.log10(ns*dts), c='C1', label='Total time per $T$')
plt.axhline(np.log10(60), c='C1', ls=':', label=f'{dt_freeze} seconds')
plt.legend(loc=(0.04,0.04));


In the above plot, we show the timestep length of the annealing profile (green). Starting at $$T = 800$$ K, and cooling down, the timestep length is gradually increased until the total simulated time at each temperature reaches 60 seconds. The timestep length is then kept constant (as the total simulated time per temperature stays at 60 seconds), until T_freeze.

5. flatspin run command and input files#

Now that we have our parameter arrays, we can generate a command to run the experiment. We will dump the parameters to CSV files and create the command in accordance with the other parameters outlined in the experiment .

import os
from flatspin.data import save_table

# === Save params.csv ===
# Output files
root_dir = "params_folder"
params_path = root_dir + "/params.csv"
if not os.path.exists(root_dir):
os.makedirs(root_dir)
print(f"Creating directory {root_dir}")

# === Define the relevant model parameters (not temperature dependent) ===
# Commented out parameters are normally supplied, but are here replaced by sweeping parameters.
params = dict(
size=(50, 50),
#     alpha=alpha_calc(msat = msat_vs_T(300), V = volume, a = 1e-9),
neighbor_distance=10,
#     hc=hc0,
disorder=0.05,
sw_b=0.38, sw_c=1.0, sw_beta=1.3, sw_gamma=3.6,
#     m_therm=msat * volume_nuc,
use_opencl=1,
H=0, spp=1, timesteps=1,
)

print(f"Saving static params to {params_path}")
save_table(params, params_path)

Creating directory params_folder
Saving static params to params_folder/params.csv

import pandas as pd
# === Save temperature dependent parameters and genereate command with all lattice spacings ===
lattice_spacings = [320, 360, 400, 440, 480, 560, 680, 880]

# Temperature dependent parameters
# All are technically a function of time, hence the '_t' subscript
Ts_out = np.repeat(Ts, ns)
dts_out = np.repeat(dts, ns)
msats = msat_vs_T(Ts_out)
alphas = alpha_calc(msats, volume, 1e-9)
m_therms = msats*volume_nuc
hcs_out = hc_vs_T(Ts_out)

csvs = [
('temperature_t', Ts_out),
('therm_timescale_t', dts_out),
('alpha_t', alphas),
('m_therm_t', m_therms),
('hc_t', hcs_out),
]

index = dict()
for k, v in csvs:
filename = f"{k}.csv"
filepath = root_dir + "/" + filename
print(f"Creating {filepath}")
np.savetxt(filepath, v)
index[k] = filepath

# Parameters it is nice to keep track off, but which are not part of the model are also saved in the index
index["T_max"] = T_max
index["T_breakoff"] = T_breakoff
index["T_min"] = T_freeze
index["multiflip_threshold"] = multiflip_threshold
index["periods"] = len(Ts_out)

index = pd.DataFrame([index])
index = index.reindex(index.index.repeat(len(lattice_spacings))).reset_index(drop=True)
index.insert(loc=0, column='lattice_spacing', value=lattice_spacings)

print(f"Generated {len(index)} runs")
display(index)

index_file = "index.csv"
index_path = root_dir + "/" + index_file
print(f"Saving index to {index_path}")
save_table(index, index_path)

# Generate flatspin-run-sweep command
print("\nGENERATED COMMAND: \n")
print(f"flatspin-run-sweep -r dist -m SquareSpinIceClosed -e Sine ", end='')
print(f"--params-file={params_path} --sweep-file={index_path} ", end='')
print("-o CHANGE_TO_OUTPUT_FOLDER") # The folder to create the

Creating params_folder/temperature_t.csv
Creating params_folder/therm_timescale_t.csv
Creating params_folder/alpha_t.csv
Creating params_folder/m_therm_t.csv
Creating params_folder/hc_t.csv
Generated 8 runs

lattice_spacing temperature_t therm_timescale_t alpha_t m_therm_t hc_t T_max T_breakoff T_min multiflip_threshold periods
0 320 params_folder/temperature_t.csv params_folder/therm_timescale_t.csv params_folder/alpha_t.csv params_folder/m_therm_t.csv params_folder/hc_t.csv 800 721.0 673 0.001 6400
1 360 params_folder/temperature_t.csv params_folder/therm_timescale_t.csv params_folder/alpha_t.csv params_folder/m_therm_t.csv params_folder/hc_t.csv 800 721.0 673 0.001 6400
2 400 params_folder/temperature_t.csv params_folder/therm_timescale_t.csv params_folder/alpha_t.csv params_folder/m_therm_t.csv params_folder/hc_t.csv 800 721.0 673 0.001 6400
3 440 params_folder/temperature_t.csv params_folder/therm_timescale_t.csv params_folder/alpha_t.csv params_folder/m_therm_t.csv params_folder/hc_t.csv 800 721.0 673 0.001 6400
4 480 params_folder/temperature_t.csv params_folder/therm_timescale_t.csv params_folder/alpha_t.csv params_folder/m_therm_t.csv params_folder/hc_t.csv 800 721.0 673 0.001 6400
5 560 params_folder/temperature_t.csv params_folder/therm_timescale_t.csv params_folder/alpha_t.csv params_folder/m_therm_t.csv params_folder/hc_t.csv 800 721.0 673 0.001 6400
6 680 params_folder/temperature_t.csv params_folder/therm_timescale_t.csv params_folder/alpha_t.csv params_folder/m_therm_t.csv params_folder/hc_t.csv 800 721.0 673 0.001 6400
7 880 params_folder/temperature_t.csv params_folder/therm_timescale_t.csv params_folder/alpha_t.csv params_folder/m_therm_t.csv params_folder/hc_t.csv 800 721.0 673 0.001 6400
Saving index to params_folder/index.csv

GENERATED COMMAND:

flatspin-run-sweep -r dist -m SquareSpinIceClosed -e Sine --params-file=params_folder/params.csv --sweep-file=params_folder/index.csv -o CHANGE_TO_OUTPUT_FOLDER


We are now ready to run the above command!

Remember to upload the params-file (params.csv) and the sweep-file (index.csv) to the file location you run flatspin from.

Notes:

• The -r dist flag tells flatspin to run distributed on a cluster. Skip this if you just run this locally.

• The -e Sine flag signifies the use of a sine encoder for the external field, but there is no input in this experiment. This flag is there to satisfy the requirement of providing an encoder to flatspin runs, but will have noe effect since there’s no input and the field is set to zero with the H=0 parameter.

6. Results#

We have our results. Now, let’s have a look!
Below we define a function to read out the spin state of any timestep from our resulting files. We can use this to animate the timeseries of the annealing process.

from flatspin.data import Dataset, read_table, read_geometry, read_vectors, vector_grid
from flatspin.grid import Grid
from flatspin.vertices import find_vertices, vertex_pos, vertex_mag
from flatspin.plotting import plot_vectors, plot_vector_image

''' Return the positions and magnetization of the dataset's vertices '''
grid_size = None
crop_width = ((1,1),(1,1))
win_shape, win_step = ((3,3), (2, 2))

UV = np.array(df)
UV = UV.reshape((UV.shape[0], -1, 2))
UV = UV[t]

XY, UV = vector_grid(pos, UV, grid_size, crop_width, win_shape, win_step, normalize=False)
return XY, UV/2


This might take some time.

# Read the dataset
dataset = dataset.filter(multiflip_threshold=multiflip_threshold, periods=len(Ts_out))

# Read the states of the vertices at specified timesteps
# (read at the end of each temperature step)
periods = len(Ts_out)
ts = np.arange(timesteps_per_K -1, periods, timesteps_per_K)
vertex_states = dict()
for ls, ds in dataset.groupby('lattice_spacing'):


Plot the final frame#

def plot_vertices(XY, UVi, ax):
ax.axis('off')
plot_vector_image(XY, UVi, ax=ax, replace=True)

fig, axs = plt.subplots(2, 4, figsize=(12,6), dpi=200)
for ax, (ls, vstate) in zip(axs.flat, vertex_states.items()):
ax.set_title(f'lattice spacing = {ls} nm')
XY, UVi = vstate
mag = np.amax(np.linalg.norm(UVi[-1], axis=-1))
plot_vertices(XY, UVi[-1]/mag, ax)
fig.suptitle('Final timestep', fontsize='x-large');


Animate over all temperatures#

from matplotlib.animation import FuncAnimation
from IPython.display import HTML

num_frames = periods // timesteps_per_K
def animate_annealing(vstates):
# Set up figure and axes
fig, axs = plt.subplots(2, 4, figsize=(12,6), dpi=200)
for ax, (ls, vstate) in zip(axs.flat, vstates.items()):
ax.set_title(f'lattice spacing = {ls} nm')

def do_plot(t):
fig.suptitle(f'T = {temperatures[t]} K', y=0.0, va='bottom', fontsize='xx-large')
for ax, (ls, vstate) in zip(axs.flat, vstates.items()):
#             ax.set_title(f'lattice spacing = {ls} nm')
XY, UVi = vstate
mag = np.amax(np.linalg.norm(UVi[-1], axis=-1))
plot_vertices(XY, UVi[t]/mag, ax)

anim = FuncAnimation(fig, do_plot, frames=num_frames, interval=150, blit=False)
plt.close() # Only show the animation
#anim.save("astroid.gif")
return HTML(anim.to_jshtml())

animate_annealing(vertex_states)